Thursday, 28 August 2014

Why Don’t You Listen To Me? (Auditory Processing) second edition by Dyslexia Dublin, © 2014

Listening relates so closely to most of what we achieve in school and in our daily lives.

Let’s take a look at Auditory Processing and the causation.

Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) is common amongst children and also goes into adulthood. It affects around 5-6% of the world’s population, myself included, and is also known as Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD).  We have real problems when it comes to picking up verbal instruction, we simply don’t hear quite the same as others without auditory processing issues. Why?… and a very important why?  Our brains and ears function in a slightly miscued way and at a far slower connection rate.  This can have a huge effect on the way we speak and quite often we have to slow speech down to avoid mistakes.

Auditory processing disorder is coming to the fore.

This is so important… in education, the connection between the individual and their teacher/instructor needs clarity and, if there is a cross infection with other noises, the signal becomes confused, or even lost and the reaction/response is often the wrong one.  This is more prevalent today than ever before, as modern class environments are more open with micro learning groups.  Some teaching styles and resources can work very much against those with auditory processing, eg. teaching as a facilitator… using mainly student input which may well involve various voices and demonstrations/role play, lots going on within the classroom.  It seems such a shame in many ways, but the old school layout and delivery was very much more favourable to good linguistics… a single voice in a quiet classroom, with just the teacher talking whilst writing on the board.  However, at that time we didn’t understand specific learning needs, now we do... or should do!  Very often the work is projected onto the whiteboard which allows the teacher to face the class, but the background noise minimises the pluses here.

Have you ever been in a cafĂ© or restaurant and struggled to listen to your friends/family?  Do you look up if someone drops something, or they turn on the ice/smoothie machine, or maybe driving in the car and the children are talking or playing loud music and you make a mistake or go the wrong way?  Have you ever wondered why some children and adults don’t enjoy swimming?  It’s not always the water that puts them off… swimming pools amplify sound to unbelievable levels.  My own daughter used to hate going to motor racing circuits and bonfire nights used to be a real problem too.  We often never realise how noise pollution affects some of us, although I will say the majority of us don’t even notice competing sounds and can just keep zoned into the person talking, or focus on what they are doing.

We, in many cases, underestimate speech.  There is a huge variation and it includes many facets for effective communication.  This includes the correct sound generation and achieving clarity of the spoken word, for both the sender and receiver of the word or words.

Vowel sounds are by far the most complex of sounds.  Consonants are much more expressive and delivered with much more gusto.

Children, and indeed adults, with the disorder very often do not recognise the minute differences between sounds in words, even when the sounds are loud and clear enough to be heard.  If we take the wavelength of say ‘a’ and ‘o’ for example, they would be very close and can be even closer depending on the pitch and clarity of the speaker.  Most of the vowels are of similar length and pitch.  This can be a problem with school age students due to being in noisy environments, such as a classroom or workshop. It is so important that the teacher/tutor can be heard by all and clarity is everything if the receiver is to have any chance of getting the words correct This is the very time we will miss the point and carry out the task incorrectly.  It is so important if your child has auditory or any processing disorder, that distractions are minimised and children diagnosed should be moved to the front of the class.  FM works very well with younger children, older children are often bothered about the stigma attached to wearing headphones or earpieces.

How do we assess for auditory processing problems?

This can be quite easy for both parent, teacher and indeed self-diagnosis in an adult.

Most who parent or work with children will notice how they appear to switch off/zone out whilst doing certain activities, like at home watching television or deep into a game, they simply don’t hear you telling them dinner is ready or to turn the tv down.  This is because you are competing with other sounds and they simply don’t hear you… this is often the case with missed instruction in class too.

If we go into a quiet room, like a library for instance, we can listen to sounds without any problem, why?... because they are clear and unhindered.  If you have ever been for a hearing test, you might have wondered why you walk through so many doors and into a soundproof room?  It’s because they have to ensure there are no competing sounds or noise pollution.

Some children and adults can have an over-sensitivity to noise, however there will also be those that have an auditory problem.  This needs clarification if it’s suspected, so that treatment can be given and any problems are addressed before they fall too far behind, ie. speech delay or studies.

We can go through childhood into adulthood and this might not be picked up due to lack of awareness, or maybe it’s not severe enough to cause concern.  However mild, moderate or severe, it should all be looked into to avoid any problems.

One of my children would have problems with competing sounds as mentioned earlier and maybe you can already see similarities… shout them for dinner and, if they are listening to music or watching tv, they won’t hear you.  Trust me, this is not with intent, they just can’t hear you… stand in front of the telly and they will hear you fine.

Do they have volume control problems… they raise their voice for no reason?

Do they dislike noisy places like swimming pools, cafes, etc?

Are noisy environments upsetting to your child?

Do they find verbally delivered numeric a problem?

Do they look round when there is a sudden increase in competing noises?

Have you noticed a variation with them in different settings?... like at home with maybe just you and them with no competing noises they can completely focus, whereas if there’s two or three children doing homework together and you’re making dinner or whatever, they can’t focus.

If the environment is noisy, is their accuracy with tasks or commands affected?

Remember that this can be comorbid with other SPLD’S like dyslexia and dyscalculia, add, adhd and can lead people to believe that they have other problems, when it can just simply be auditory processing.  Lack of understanding/clarity can cause students to appear hyper and disruptive and while I must say this is not one size fits all, it is well worth exploring… especially if you see a change in your child.

Maybe they have a problem academically that is caused by their inability to zone into the teacher?  Maybe their class is noisy at times?  You generally find noise levels increase in English and Maths, as many of the children are less stimulated and distracted and this can raise noise levels to the point where your child cannot focus.  We need really good listening and processing skills in the early phases of learning English, as there is such a small variation in sounds between certain letters and letter formations.  We can also look at confusion with homework… what happens when the teacher wraps up or the children know the school day is coming to an end?  Ever wondered why they forget books or misunderstood what was required for homework?  This is often laid at the door of poor organisational skillsets… a simple fix is to set the homework earlier in the day and not when children see school is about to end and noise levels increase as desks are closed and coats and bags are grabbed.  What would be really good for all concerned would be to have set days for homework, say Monday - Maths and Tuesday – English, or languages whilst they are still fresh and attentive, and this would also mean less books to carry too! 

Maybe your school is proactive and are prepared to offer FM or take steps to reduce competing noises… this can also be done at home when tasks require a high level of accuracy.  Help them to speak with good tone variation, try talking into the mirror with them, record their voice and play it back, this helps pitch.  Try not to use high level vocabulary, make it fit their academic age range… we often talk to our children these days as if they are adults, this never happened years ago.  Also, keep an eye on the type of programmes they are watching on the television.

We tend to slow our speech down when talking to non-English speakers and this is also a good idea for talking to people with APD, but not to the point where the person feels that we are making fun of them, there has to be a good balance.  School environment can account for some issues… teachers can make sure those who they feel may have APD can be seated nearer the front of the class and preferably away from the noisy elements.  Let your child share ownership of this, especially if they are of an age where they can see the negative affect it has on their progress both in and out of school.

How do we find out if our child, or indeed an adult, has APD?  You can monitor activities and mood swings during events… like the school disco, a visit to the circus or swimming for example.  If we feel concerned, then we can see our GP and maybe get an auditory test by an audiologist.  We must wait until sufficient maturation has taken place to give a fair and conclusive assessment… this would be from junior school or first class, the equivalent would be third grade in America.

 Processing Information -

We with APD are slower auditory processors than most others… we take far more time to devour information and we often need to be told a few times or read text several times.  We can even take things the wrong way and miss punch lines in jokes or be the butt of a joke without realising it.  There are several ways information can be interpreted and we often only figure one angle… this can lead to people belittling us and bullying can also result.  We have to take information in, in a variety of ways, preference would be audio/visual or a kinaesthetic form, or better still a combination of all three… teachers can deliver work in several ways to help develop retention through a program of over learning that reduces repetition. I continue to push over learning as it is so very important… once is no good, three or (better still) four times hits the spot.

Sound structure and the correct pronunciation are critical if we want our children to have a good understanding of English in all forms, and dialect plays a very important part in the process. This is of particular concern where children have parents from two different nationalities or both parents whose first language isn’t English. We can also find difficulties where the person teaching the student has a strong dialect like someone from the north of a country teaching someone in the south or vice versa.

NB. This information is from personal experience and research and also partly sourced through the work of others. It is purely for improving the understanding of dyslexia and to offer helpful advice. Dyslexia Dublin CETC © 2014

We have a great products to help with auditory processing and for improving short term memory and much more at our online store.

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Thursday, 21 August 2014

‘Why Dyslexia and not Visual Stress?’ by  Dyslexia Dublin © 2014

The strength of good literacy skills is built from firm foundations, early letter and sound association (phonics, phonemes)… we all remember our phonetic alphabet.  What is a phoneme?...  a phoneme is a basic unit of a language's phonology, which is combined with other phonemes to form a meaningful unit. We can change a word by simply changing the phoneme, like kill and kiss (ll), (ss). Sound (auditory processing) is the first step in literacy development, its from that we learn to form speech patterns and then linking this to how can we link dyslexia and visual stress!

DYSLEXIA  -  How can we tell if someone is Dyslexic?

They can have problems with constructing words, although they are generally ok with mono syllabic words.  They can also suffer with letter reversals (using the correct letters but in the wrong sequence) and logical reasoning (not being able to form pairs of letters into sounds like ‘ch’ or ‘ur’ as in ch-ur-ch or church). Short term memory is also a problem as they are not stimulated as they would be through the visual channel.

What causes Dyslexia?

Dyslexia is caused primarily by the part of our brain (brain is made up of several component parts) that decodes the written and sometimes the spoken word. Two strongly held beliefs about dyslexia are that children/adults with it are prone to seeing letters or words in a reversed format, and also that the problem is linked to intelligence. Both ideals are incorrect. The problem is actually a linguistic one, not a visual one, in dyslexia. And dyslexia in no way stems from any lack of intelligence. People with severe dyslexia can be brilliant… however due to being dyslexic we have a huge problem.

When someone writes something for us to copy or dictates words to copy, the information enters the left side of our brain via the audio or visual tract… most dyslexics would find great difficulty in processing information in this way due to poor or limited function of the left side of the brain (left lobe) that forms whole words and letter sounds.  There are three areas - the Broca’s  that works on articulation and word analyses… the Parietal/temporal that also helps to analyse words (includes sensory processing along with the cerebellum ) and the Occipital that helps to form our words. Dyslexics have an impaired Occipital and rely more on the Broca’s area when trying to structure whole words. This is not the last port of call, as we then search in our right side for a stored image of the given word.  This however shows a lack of reading fluency in the child or adult that has not had intervention. It is easy to see why so many children and adults with dyspraxia have problems with reading/spelling and they make up the greater proportion of dyslexics.

VISUAL STRESS  -  How can we tell if someone has Visual stress?

Moving closer to or away from page.
Becoming fidgety whilst reading.
Using their finger to track words.
Missing out words and dropping down to another line (eye tracking) is also a possibility here.
Rubbing or rinsing eyes and neck, gulping (drawing in air) and yawning whilst reading and blinking excessively to re-focus.
Self-confidence and associated behaviour which can be hidden.

What causes Visual stress?

 It is a condition that will contribute unaided to reading and writing problems, eye strain and possibly headaches/migraine brought on by prolonged reading. It can affect and be more noticeable in those with light sensitivity, with the appearance of patterns in text and glare effect that can cause letter to appear bunched up and can lead to letter movement. There is a low tolerance to the amount of white light/glare compared to that of a person that doesn’t have visual stress.

The Wilkins Rate of Reading Test will help test for visual stress, it’s a simple test that does not check for dyslexia (cognitive ability) or IQ/intelligence, but that of fluency of reading, speed, etc.

How is this test conducted?  The test uses simple words, familiar to children/adults. The words appear in each line of a block of text but in a random order (we with old hill, etc.) as we are not assessing the child’s comprehension skills but purely the reading speed.

Dyslexia… Help is at hand

How can we help/intervene with dyslexia?  We can get teachers to use visual stimulus to help transfer information to the Occipital area of the brain, this will also strengthen the visual memory bank. The STEPS Programme used in our centre works on these key areas with a multi-sensory approach through structured reading exercises, sight vocabulary games, a word flash session and targeted reading practice( fluency). This can make huge improvements as it stimulates the brain with variety and is also very visual.

 Visual stress… Help is at hand

As visual stress is caused by intensity of light (white), we can reduce/defuse this by using filters. For the most part this can be extremely low cost, with the use of academic resources like a Reading Ruler or coloured Overlays and, in addition, the use of coloured Work Books.
You can if you wish get specialist lenses prescribed through an optician… however many will feel a little uncomfortable with, this especially older children. An inexpensive pack of filters can help with all academic study and can be supplied for under €12 or £10.
and available at

We can see from both visual stress and dyslexia that the two are not directly connected, although through pure averages, around 2-4% of dyslexics will also present with visual stress.

(another great article worth reading @

There are two more in depth articles written by us on both these areas, however I felt that many confuse the two so a short comparison was called for.

For resources that help with both visit our web at